PSY2 – Research Methods: Lesson 18


PSY2 RM PowerpointTeachers or students who want the original PPT please tweet @psychopepper

Learning Objectives

  • To KNOW and UNDERSTAND what the features are of a correlation.
  • To ANALYSE scattergrams and correlations coefficients.
  • To be able to EVALUATE the strengths and limitations of correlations.
  • To CREATE a correlation based on experience of conducting a test.

Lesson Outline:


  1. Complete the two questionnaires on self esteem and femininity.
  2. Answer starter questions on correlations from booklet
  3. Operationalise variables and know how to write relationships based hypotheses and how they are different from experimental hypotheses.
  4. Know how to write a null hypothesis.
  5. Complete a scattergram for class data on femininity and self esteem
  6. To take notes in booklet on types and strengths of correlations
  7. To take notes in booklet on the strengths and limitations  of using correlations.
  8. To have planned and conducted your own correlation of introversion and salivary response. (see teacher for secure resources)

Content Recap:

Correlations: A method for determining the extent of an association between two variables; co-variables may not be linked at all (zero correlation), they may both increase together (positive correlation) or as one co-variable increases, the other decreases (negative correlation). They are a good starting point for future experimentation, see if the relationship warrants more research, they have good replication and are useful where manipulation of an IV would not be possible/ethical.  However it is impossible to make causal inference due to no direct manipulation of IV and there is a failure to consider intervening variables and therefore the methods may lack internal reliability and/or internal validity.

If you would like to access PsychoPepper’s Glossary of Terms please click here

Resources Used:

You Lemon (see teacher)

Study Notes (TBC):

If you would like to download a set of study notes for this lesson, you can do so here. If you would like access to the original word file please tweet @psychopepper


I would suggest that you have a copy of one of the textbooks which will allow you to read around the subject matter, pre-read ahead of lessons or even take extra notes/practise questions afterwards. I would recommend the following (you do not need to replicate books, one of each type is plenty!)

Extra ReadingElephants on Acid or Hippo Eats Dwarf

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